Oleh Admin Kalbe Medical pada May 16, 2017 07:30

Manfaat Omega-3 pada Sarcopenia

Ketika usia bertambah tua, dapat diikuti dengan pengecilan jaringan dan massa otot yang dikenal dengan nama sarcopenia. Keadaan sarcopenia dapat menyebabkan terjadinya kelemahan otot, yang mengakibatkan berkurangnya gerakan (immobile), cenderung untuk jatuh, dan meningkatkan gangguan kegiatan lainnya dalam kehidupan sehari-hari. Salah satu cara untuk mencegah dan menyelamatkan terhadap keadaan ini diperlukan latihan atau olahraga yang teratur dan rutin serta suplementasi vitamin D.

Smith, dkk. melakukan penelitian untuk melihat manfaat dan efek omega-3 terhadap pencegahan terjadinya sarcopenia. Latar belakang dari penelitiannya adalah bahwa kehilangan massa otot dengan penuaan merupakan masalah utama kesehatan masyarakat.  Asam lemak omega-3 merangsang proses anabolisme protein pada hewan dan mungkin dapat bermanfaat pada pengobatan sarcopenia. Walaupun begitu, efek asam lemak omega-3 pada metabolisme protein di manusia belum diketahui secara jelas.  

Penelitian objektif dilakukan dengan tujuan untuk mengevaluasi efek suplementasi asam lemak omega-3 terhadap kecepatan sintesis protein otot pada dewasa lanjut usia. Desain penelitiannya adalah dengan mengikutsertakan 16 orang dewasa sehat lanjut usia yang secara acak diberi asam lemak omega-3 atau minyak jagung selama 8 minggu. Kecepatan sintesis protein otot dan fosforilasi elemen kunci dari jalur signal anabolisme dievaluasi sebelum dan sesudah suplementasi pada kondisi basal, keadaan setelah penyerapan dan selama hiperaminoasidemia-hiperinsulinemia.

Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa suplementasi minyak jagung tidak mempunyai efek terhadap kecepatan sintesis protein otot ataupun peningkatan elemen fosforilasi signal anabolisme pada otot. Suplementasi asam lemak tidak menunjukkan efek pada tingkat basal sintesis protein otot dengan mean ± SEM: 0,051 ± 0,005 dibandingkan 0,053 ± 0,008%/ jam sebelum dan sesudah  suplementasi, namun terdapat penambahan pada hiperaminoasidemia-hiperinsulinemia, dengan meningkatkan sintesis protein otot dari 0,009 ± 0,005%/ jam di atas nilai basal menjadi 0,031 ± 0,003%/jam di atas nilai basal dengan P <0,01 yang diketahui bersinergi dengan penambahan yang lebih besar dari peningkatan pada otot  mTORSer2448 (P=0,08) dan p70s6kThr389 (P< 0,01) secara fosforilasi.

Simpulan:
Dari penelitian Smith, dkk. menunjukkan bahwa asam lemak omega-3 merangsang sintesis protein otot pada orang dewasa lanjut usia serta bermanfaat untuk pencegahan terjadinya sarcopenia. (LAI)

Image : Ilustrasi
Referensi:
1.Smith GI, Atherton P, Reeds DN, Mohammed BS, Rankin D, Rennie MJ,  et al. Dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in older adults: A randomized controlled trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011;93(2):402–12. doi: 10.3945/ajcn.110.005611.
2.Smith GI, Atherton P, Reeds DN, Mohammed BS, Rankin D, Rennie MJ, et al. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids augment the muscle protein anabolic response to hyperinsulinaemia-hyperaminoa

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