Oleh Admin Kalbe Medical pada April 13, 2017 07:30

Astaxanthin Berpotensi Mencegah Demensia

Sebelumnya telah dikonfirmasi bahwa kadar phospholipid hydroperoxides (PLOOH), produk oksidasi utama dari phospholipid, berakumulasi secara abnormal pada eritrosit pasien demensia. Eritrosit dengan kadar lipid hydroperoxide yang tinggi tersebut telah menurunkan kemampuan transportasi oksigen ke otak, dan dapat mengganggu reologi darah (kualitas aliran darah dan komponennya), sehingga memfasilitasi demensia. Terdapat bukti bahwa penurunan xanthophyll carotenoid dan peningkatan kadar PLOOH pada eritrosit berkorelasi dengan keparahan demensia. Penemuan ini menyebabkan timbulnya hipotesis bahwa suplementasi xanthophyll dapat meminimalkan akumulasi PLOOH eritrosit, dan bahwa xanthophyll dapat digunakan secara terapeutik untuk mencegah penyakit demensia.

Di antara xanthophyll, astaxanthin saat ini mendapat perhatian untuk aktivitas antioksidannya yang poten. Astaxanthin secara alami dapat disintesis oleh alga dan telah dikomersialkan sebagai suplemen makanan dari alga Haematococcus. Suatu studi dilakukan secara acak, tersamar ganda, pada orang usia pertengahan dan usia lanjut (usia antara 50-69 tahun) untuk menilai apakah pemberian astaxanthin terdistribusi ke eritrosit dan menghambat pembentukan PLOOH. Dalam studi ini, dinilai efikasi suplementasi astaxanthin 6 atau 12 mg/hari dan kadar PLOOH pada eritrosit.

Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa setelah terapi 12 minggu, konsentrasi astaxanthin dalam eritrosit lebih besar pada kelompok astaxanthin 6 mg dan 12 mg dibanding pada kelompok plasebo. Sebaliknya, konsentrasi PLOOH eritrosit secara bermakna lebih rendah pada kelompok astaxanthin dibanding pada kelompok plasebo (8,0 pmol/mL dan 9,7 pmol/mL vs 14,9 pmol/mL, p=0,031). Di dalam plasma, kadar PLOOH sedikit lebih rendah setelah terapi astaxanthin.

Hasil tersebut menunjukkan bahwa suplementasi astaxanthin menyebabkan peningkatan status antioksidan dan penurunan kadar PLOOH eritrosit, sehingga dapat berkontribusi pada pencegahan demensia. Penemuan ini memberikan wawasan baru mengenai kemungkinan aplikasi astaxanthin sebagai anti-demensia. (EKM)

Image : Ilustrasi
Referensi:
1.Nakagawa K, Kiko T, Miyazawa T, Burdeos GC, Kimura F, Satoh A et al. Antioxidant effect of astaxanthin on phospholipid peroxidation in human erythrocytes.  Br J Nut. 2011;105:1563-71.
2.Astaxanthin: Dementia [Internet]. 2011 [cited 2017 Apr 11]. Available from: http://www.nutraceuticalsworld.com/issues/2011-05/view_peer-reviewed-research/astaxanthin-dementia

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