Oleh Admin Kalbe Medical pada March 17, 2017 07:30

Pengaruh Prebiotik pada Kepadatan Tulang

Pada manusia, banyak penelitian yang menyebutkan bahwa kolon dapat mengabsorpsi kalsium dalam jumlah yang bermakna, dan proses ini sensitif terhadap manipulasi diet dengan substrat yang dapat difermentasi, khususnya fruktan jenis inulin. Fruktan jenis inulin dapat memodulasi absorpsi kalsium karena resisten terhadap hidrolisis oleh enzim mamalia dan difermentasi dalam usus besar untuk menghasilkan asam lemak rantai pendek. Absorpsi kalsium usus dapat juga terjadi melalui jalur paraseluler pasif melalui tight junction antara sel-sel mukosa sepanjang usus kecil dan usus besar. Lebih lanjut, fruktan jenis inulin juga meningkatkan transpor kalsium aktif transeluler dengan mengubah aktivitas reseptor vitamin D dan meningkatkan calbindin-9K (protein intraseluler yang terlibat dalam translokasi kalsium terhadap membran basolateral sel epitel mukosa).

Perbandingan langsung fruktan jenis inulin menunjukkan bahwa inulin atau campuran inulin rantai panjang dan oligofructose memberikan efek yang lebih nyata dibanding oligofructose saja dalam menstimulasi absorpsi mineral dan penambahan mineral tulang. Meskipun fruktan dapat memperbaiki absorpsi kalsium dan kandungan mineral tulang pada hewan coba, namun efeknya pada bioavalaibilitas kalsium dan densitas tulang dapat bervariasi dengan derajat polimerisasinya. Oleh karena itu, suatu studi pada hewan (tikus) telah dilakukan selama periode 3 bulan di mana tikus-tikus diberikan diet kontrol atau diet yang diperkaya oligofructose (fructooligosaccharide=FOS) atau inulin.

Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa berat badan, massa otot tubuh, dan panjang tulang apendikuler sama pada ketiga kelompok. Tikus yang diberi makan fruktan mempunyai peningkatan yang sama pada berat dinding sekum (30%), tetapi peningkatan relatif pada kadar calbinding-9K adalah 2 pada kelompok oligofructose dan 4 pada kelompok inulin. Lebih lanjut, penurunan kadar kolagen C-telopeptide tipe I dalam serum secara bermakna lebih besar pada kelompok inulin (30%) dibanding kelompok oligofructose (16%).

Peningkatan kandungan mineral tubuh secara keseluruhan yang diukur dengan DXA lebih besar pada kelompok inulin dibanding kelompok oligofructose tetapi DXA mendeteksi peningkatan kandungan mineral tulang dari tulang femur yang terlatih hanya pada kelompok inulin. Peningkatan area dan densitas mineral tulang kanselosa (cancellous) pada tulang tibia proksimal dan vertebra ditemukan pada tikus yang diberi makan fruktan dan efek inulin lebih besar (p<0,01) dibanding oligofructose (p<0,05). Lebih lanjut, inulin secara bermakna meningkatkan densitas mineral tulang korteks pada lokasi apendikuler dan perifer (p<0,01) dan indeks tegangan tulang femur (p<0,01).

Penemuan tersebut menunjukkan bahwa baik pada inulin dan oligofructose mempunyai efek positif pada densitas mineral tulang, efek terbesar dari inulin dikaitkan dengan kapasitas yang lebih besar dari fruktan ini untuk menurunkan resorpsi tulang.  (LAI)

Image : Ilustrasi
Referensi:
1.Coxam V. Current data with inulin-type fructans and calcium, targeting bone health in adults. J Nutr. 2007;137:2527–33.
2.Scholz-Ahrens K, Schrezenmeir J. Inulin and oligofructose and mineral metabolism: The evidence from animal trials. J Nutr. 2007;137:2513–23.
3.Nzeusseua A, Diensta D, Haufroidb V, Depresseuxa G, Devogelaera J, Manicourtac D. Inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides differ in their ability to enhance the density of cancellous and cortical bone in the axial and peripheral skeleton of growing rats. Official Journal of the International Bone Mineral Society 2006;38(3):394-9.

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